Resources for the Study of Pashto
Compiled by Maggie Ronkin, Georgetown University
Pashto Teachionary, demo of a language-learning tool from Sprex, Inc., Seattle:
Work in Progress
Web-Based Resources for the Study of Pashto Literature, organized by Dr. Wilma Heston:
Much of this resource list was by Dr. Elena Bashir of the University of Chicago
A=UCLA Language Materials Project
C=ERIC Database: Copied Abstracts for Multi-Volume Courses
D=U.S. Library of Congress (selections from 110 records)
Ahmed, Akbar S. (translator). 1975. Mataloona: Pukhto Proverbs. Karachi, PK: Oxford University Press.
A collection of proverbs with literal translations and occasional mentions of equivalents in other languages.
Bashir, Elena L. 1991. A Contrastive Analysis of Pashto and Urdu. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development.
Bellew, Henry W. 1867/1980. A Dictionary of the Pukkhto or Pukshto Language: In Which the Words Are Traced to Their Sources in the Indian and Persian Languages. Karachi, PK: Pakistan Publishing House.
A nineteenth-century Pashto-to-English and English-to-Pashto dictionary.
Bellew, Henry W. 1867/1983. A Grammar of the Pukkhto or Pukshto Language. London: W. H. Allen.
A nineteenth-century pedagogical grammar.
Blumhardt, James Fuller and D.N. MacKenzie. 19??/1965. Catalogue of Pashto Manuscripts in the Libraries of the British Isles. London: Trustees of the British Museum.
Chavarria-Aguilar, Oscar Luis. 1962. Pashto Instructor’s Handbook. Ann Arbor, MI: Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Michigan.
Contains minimal pair and other types of oral drills for improving Pashto pronunciation.
Chavarria-Aguilar, Oscar Luis. 1962. A Short Introduction to the Writing System of Pashto. Ann Arbor, MI: Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Michigan.
A brief introduction to Pashto orthography that explains the relationship between the script and phonemes.
Note: The Instructor’s Handbook (above) together with A Short Introduction to the Writing System of Pashto (above) and Herbert Penzl’s A Reader of Pashto (below) were intended to form an oral language course.
Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. 1986. Pashto Basic Course: Textbook, Units 1-7. Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center.
A seven-week, full-time course that includes instruction, listening laboratory work, and writing practice.
Source=A, C (below)
Intended (with its accompanying written and recorded materials) for an intensive language course which includes instruction, listening laboratory work and writing practice. Divided into seven units, consisting of five lessons each. Designed to take one week of class time to complete a unit. Lessons include a summary of goals for the lesson, review of previously learned material relevant to the lesson, presentation of new vocabulary, a dialog, fluency practice, sentence structure presentation, exercises for structural practice, and exercises for conversation practice. Structural exercises include repetition, completion and transformation. Conversation exercises include repetition of dialogues and oral pair work in transformation and expansion of each dialogue. Includes a variety of topics such as seasons, days and times, prayer, weddings, the family, Pashtun life and culture, including city and country life, telephoning, asking for and giving information, etc. Contains maps, photos, illustrations and charts for cultural background references. Quizzes are provided in the Teachers’ Manual to be photo-copied and taken by students after units 1,3,5 and 7. Tests are provided for use after units 2, 4 and 6. Tests and quizzes include an oral component which is provided on the Textbook tapes following lesson five of each unit.
Subjects: communicative competence, culture and customs, grammar instruction, teaching method theories--audiolingual
Electronic Media Description: Audio cassettes; textbook
Time Frame: Seven weeks (thirty hours per week)
Features: Illustrated, writing system
ERIC Document Reproduction Service, 7420 Fullerton Road, Suite 110, Springfield, VA 22153-2852, Phone: 800.443.3742, Fax: 703.440.1408
Material: General text, Skill: All, Level: Beginning, Audience: Adult
Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. 1986. Pashto Basic Course: Workbook, Units 1-7. Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center.
Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. 1986. Pashto Basic Course: Teachers’ Manual, Units 1-7. Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center.
Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. 1986. Pashto Basic Course: Writing Manual to Accompany Units 3-7. Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center.
Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. 1986. Pashto Basic Course: Laboratory Manual, Units 1-7. Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center.
Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. 1986. Pashto Basic Course: Laboratory Tapescripts, Units 1-7. Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center.
Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. 1986. Pashto Basic Course: Textbook Tapescripts, Units 1-7. Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center.
Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. 1986. Pashto Basic Course: Workbook Tapescript, Units 1-7. Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center.
Dorn, Bernhard. 1982. A Chrestomathy of the Pushtu or Afghan Language: To which is
Subjoined a Glossary in Afghan and English. Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio Verlag.
An anthology of selections from literary works, religious law, the Bible, and poetry, with a 250-page English glossary.
Enevoldsen, Jens. 1968. An Introduction to Pakhto. Copenhagen: Dansk Pathan Mission.
A basic grammar in thirty-nine lessons.
Enevoldsen, Jens. 1970/2000. Sound the Bells, O Moon, Arise and Shine. Sugar Hill, NH: Interlit Foundation.
A short collection of proverbs and lines from tappas, with parallel translations, cultural explanations, and illustrations.
Enevoldsen, Jens. 1993. The Nightingale of Peshawar: Selections from Rahman Baba.
Sugar Hill, NH: InterLit Foundation.
English translations of fifty poems from the diwan of the seventeenth-century Persian mystic Abdur Rahman Baba, with parallel presentations of the original Pashto, linguistic and cultural annotations, and an introduction.
Gilbertson, George W. 1932. The Pakkhto Idiom: A Dictionary. Hertford, UK: Stephen Austin and Sons.
The first of two volumes of a comprehensive dictionary of Pashto idiomatic phrases-covers ‘a’ to ‘l’-arranged by key words.
Hanley, Barbara. 1970. Concise English-Pushtu Dictionary / Da Inglisi Aw Pushto
Qamus. Kabul: Da Pohane Wizarat. (Available from Malik Book Depot, Chowk Urdu Bazaar, Lahore, PK.)
4,000 words with romanized and Pashto scripts; includes a phonetic chart and a method of converting Nagrahari pronunciation to Kandari pronunciation.
India Office Library and Records. 1990. Catalogue of the Urdu, Punjabi, Pashto, and Kashmiri Manuscripts and Documents in the India Office Library and Records. Compliled by S. Quraishi. London: British Library.
Khaliq, Q. A. 1973. Fifty Lessons to Learn Pushto with Fluency and Accuracy. Peshawar, PK: Ferozsons.
A short functional introduction with vocabulary, conversations, drills, and exercises. No table of contents, instructions, or answers.
Khan, Qazi Rahimullah. 1992. The Modern Pushtu Instructor. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.
The first of two volumes for attaining the proficiency expected of British civil service and military personnel. Grammar, reading and writing exercises, and prose composition.
Lorenz, Manfred. 1982. Lehrbuch des Pashto (Afghanisch) / von Manfred Lorenz.
Edition 2., durchgesehene Aufl. Leipzig : Verlag Enzyklopèadie.
A German-language textbook for a basic Pashto course in seven units.
Lorimer, John Gordon. 1902. Grammar and Vocabulary of Waziri Pashto. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendant of Government Printing, India.
M. R. M. Staff. 1984. A Pashto Newspaper Reader. Kensington, MD: Dunwoody Press.
An intermediate-level sample of fifty-one newspaper articles on political, social, and civic topics with English translations.
No author listed. 1989. English-Pushtu Dictionary. New Delhi: Publications India.
An 820-page English-to-Pashto dictionary, with a list of common abbreviations.
Olson, Randall with Mohammad Afzal Rashid. 1996. Speaking Afghan Pashto: Eastern Afghan Dialect. Sugar Hill, NH: InterLit Foundation.
A basic intensive course on the eastern Afghan variety designed for NGOs, development agencies, and academics. Dialogues, pronunciation drills, grammatical explanations, exercises, comprehension drills, vocabulary lists, and proverbs.
Paper, Herbert H. 1964. A Short Grammatical Outline of Pashto. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore, and Linguistics. (Available from Mouton and Company, The Hague, Netherlands.)
A brief introduction to the sound system, morphology, and syntax of Pashto, which will aid dictionary users.
Penzl, Herbert. 1965. A Reader of Pashto. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. (Available from Ambassador Books, Toronto, Ontario, CA.)
An introduction to reading several text genres in twenty-one units comprised of texts, romanized transcriptions, glosses, cultural and linguistic-dialectal notes, and English translations.
Raverty, H. G. 18??/1986. A Dictionary of the Puk’hto, Pus’hto or Languages of the Afghans: with Remarks on the Originality of the Language and Its Affinity to the Semitic and Other Oriental Tongues. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.
A brief dictionary to accompany a nineteenth-century grammar by the same author (below).
Raverty, H. G. 18??/1986. The Pushto Manual: The Language of the Afghans: Comprising a Concise Grammar; Exercises and Dialogues; Familiar Phrases, Proverbs, and Vocabulary. New Delhi, India: Cosmo Publications.
The title says it all.
Raverty, H. G. 1860/1887. A Grammar of the Puk’hto, Pus’hto, or Language of the Afghans. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.
A nineteenth-century grammar that includes theories of the 1850s on the origins of the Pashtun and Pashto.
Rudelson, Justin John. 1998. Central Asia Phrasebook. 1998. Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet Publications.
A travelers’ phrasebook containing sections on Uighur, Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Kazakh, Paskto, and Tajik, as well as briefer phase lists for other Central Asian languages.
Shafeev, D.A. 1964. A Short Grammatical Outline of Pashto. Herbert H. Paper, translator and editor. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.
[See also the entry under ‘Paper’ above.]
Tair, Muhammad Navaz and T. C. Edwards. 1982. Rohi Mataluna / Pashto Proverbs.
Peshawar, PK: Pashto Academy, University of Peshawar.
A collection of Pashto proverbs with translations into English.
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1990. Beginning Pashto: Glossary
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1990. Beginning Pashto: Textbook.
This textbook is a component of “Beginning Pashto,” a set of materials (including a student workbook, teachers’ manual, glossary, and tapescripts) that teaches the Pushto language. The language taught is Afghan Pushto, particularly the standard central district dialect spoken in Kabul and in the official media. The text provides 14 units of study; each unit is approximately 10 hours of class work, and therefore, is sufficient for 2 semesters of academic language training. The first unit of study teaches the Pushto writing system and consists of the following sections: (1) Greeting and Goodby Phrases; (2) Pushto Pronunciation; (3) The Pushto Alphabet Letter Shapes; and (4) Diversions. The remaining 13 units of study present the language through dialogues and readings on various topics (e.g. food, shopping, weather, family, etc.), with accompanying presentations on grammar and vocabulary, and exercises for oral practice and conversation. Each unit also contains a diversion (a proverb, poem, or story) intended to amuse the student, and to provide a glimpse of Pushto folk literature. The dialogues revolve around the activities of a group of Pashtuns and Americans at an American university. The readings, for the most part, describe Pashtun life and customs in Afghanistan and are related to the topic in the corresponding dialogue. (GLR)
ERIC database abstract
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1990. Beginning Pashto: Workbook.
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1990. Beginning Pashto: Teachers’ Manual.
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1990. Beginning Pashto: Textbook Tapescript.
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1990. Beginning Pashto: Workbook Tapescript.
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1991. Intermediate Pashto: Interim Pashto-English Glossary.
Tegey, Habibullah and Brabara Robson. 1991. Intermediate Pashto: Textbook.
The textbook for intermediate level Pushto instruction consists of 14 units (15-28) on a variety of cultural topics and linguistic structures. Cultural topics include engagement and marriage, children's education, agriculture and related subjects, the family, Pashtun history, genealogies of major Pashtun tribes, the Pashtun code of behavior, Afghan government and politics, Moslem traditions, and village life. Grammar topics include perfective participles, relative clauses, the imperfective participle, “can” phrases, comparisons, conditional statements, relatives, and past and present unreal conditions. Each unit contains a dialogue or story in Pushto, a new vocabulary list, notes on new grammatical structures, related exercises for language practice and comprehension, and additional brief readings. (MSE)
ERIC database abstract.
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1991. Intermediate Pashto: Teachers’ Manual.
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1991. Intermediate Pashto: Workbook.
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1992. Pashto Reader.
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1992. Pashto Reader Passages in Transcription.
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1992. Pashto Reader Originals.
Tegey, Habibullah 1993. Pashto-English Glossary for the CAL Pashto Materials
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1993. Pashto Conversation: Manual.
Tegey, Habibullah and Barbara Robson. 1993. Pashto Conversation: Tapescript.
Thorburn, S. S. 1876/1978. Bannu: Our Afghan Frontier. Lahore, PK: Niaz Ahmed, Sang-e-Meel Publications. [Original in the Library of Congress].
Reprint of a late nineteenth-century book, the second half of which covers 406 proverbs, with translations.
Trumpp, Ernest. 1969. Grammar of the Pashto or Language of the Afghans, Compared
with the Iranian and North-Indian Idioms. Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio Verlag.
Reprint of a 412-page descriptive grammar covering parts of speech, the sound system, morphology, syntax, etc.
Wardak, Giljan Woro. 1990. Pushto Shud / Pashto Teacher. Peshawar, PK. Pak-German Bas-Ed, University.
Thirty-eight lessons with exercises, focusing on conversational skills, translation, grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary.
Work in Progress
Standard Proficiency/Competency Examination for Pashto, under development by
Dr. Benedicte Grima Santry, University of Pennsylvania, firstname.lastname@example.org
Proposal to the SALRC
ACTFL currently provides no proficiency testing for Pashto. Neither does the University of Pennsylvania, where the language is taught. This project will fill that gap. The exam will test four skill areas: listening comprehension, reading comprehension, writing, and spoken proficiency. Each skill area will be broken into four proficiency levels: novice, low intermediate, high intermediate and advanced, according to the levels used by the ACTFL OPI testing.
The listening comprehension portion will be presented as a series of spoken lines, short dialogues and longer passages of increasing difficulty, followed by questions in English, and multiple choice answers. The selections will include both recordings by a native speaker, as well as authentic materials recorded live from media sources and digitalized on disc.
The reading comprehension portion will present a series of texts in Pashto, beginning short at the novice level and lengthening to longer texts of increasing difficulty to the advanced level. Each text will be followed by questions that test the understanding of meaning with multiple choice answers. A wide variety of genres will be used in this section, both original and taken from already existing sources.
The writing portion will require the examinee to compose a short paragraph in Pashto, using various grammatical structures reflecting the expectations of each level. The oral proficiency section of the exam will assess functional speaking ability. It will contain a collection of structured dialogue situations and conversation topics aimed at each level, and will follow the ACTFL guidelines for testing. This examination will not be web-based, but presented on disc.