Resources for the Study of Language Policies in Central Asia

and Some Miscellaneous Materials


Compiled by Maggie Ronkin, Georgetown University



1. Background and General Sources



Landau, Jacob M. and Barbara Kellner-Heinkele. 2001. Politics of Language Use in the Ex-Soviet Muslim States: Azarbayjan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikstan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.


Library of Congress Online Catalog


Library of Congress Federal Research Division Country Studies Search


Tishkov, Valery A. Ethnic Conflicts in the Context of Social Science Theories a.tishkov



Fussman, Gérard. 1972. Atlas Linguistique des Parlers Dardes et Kafirs, Vols. 1-2. Paris III: Univ. de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Phil. Fak., Diss.



Maps of Asia from the Asia Society


Interactive Map of Central Asia



Richard Strand’s Nuristan Site


Nuristani Resources from the Linguist List






2. William Beeman’s Relevant Publications from his Brown University Website     



·       Under review Iranian Performance. Los Angeles: Mazda Press.


·    2001 Emotion and Sincerity in Persian Discourse. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 148: 31-57.


·    1999 The Struggle for Identity in Post-Soviet Tajikistan. MERIA (Middle East Research) 3:(4) Article 7. 369-393.


·    1988 Affectivity in Persian Language Usage. In Good, Byron, Mary Jo Good and Michael M.J. Fischer, eds., Affect and Healing in Middle Eastern Cultures. Special Issue, Culture Medicine and Psychiatry 12 (1): 403-24.






3. William Fierman’s Relevant Publications from the Asia Society Website


·       Language Planning and National Development: The Uzbek Experience. (Contributions to the Sociology of Language, 60). Berlin and New York: Mouton, 1991. [Mentioned by most contributors to this list.]


·       “Implementing Language Laws: Perestroika and its Legacy in Five Republics.” Editor. Nationalities Papers, XXIII, No. 3 (1995): 505-659.


·       “Problems of Implementing Uzbekistan’s Language Law.” Nationalities Papers, XXIII, No. 3 (1995): 573-595.


·       Fierman, William. 1995. Independence and the Declining Priority of Language Law Implementation in Uzbekistan. In Yaacov Ro’i (editor). Muslim Eurasia: Conflicting Legacies. Pp. 205-230. London: Frank Cass.


·       “Language and Identity in Kazakhstan: Formulations in Policy Documents, 1987-1997.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies, XXX, No. 2 (1998): 171-186.


·       “Language, Identity and Conflict in Central Asia and the Southern Caucasus.” No date given. Perspectives on Central Asia II, No. 5, 1-4.


4. Suggestions from Rudolf P. Gaudio, Purchase College, State University of New York


·       Allworth, Edward. 1964. Uzbek literary politics. The Hague: Mouton.


·       Connor, Walker. 1984. The national question in Marxist-Leninist theory and strategy.       Princeton: Princeton Univ.  [Includes discussion of language policies in Central Asian regions of the ex-USSR and the People’s Republic of China.]


·       Friedman, Thomas L. 1992. Uzbek says yes to democracy, of course. The New York  Times, Feb. 17, 1992, A7.  [Mentions the adoption of the Roman alphabet after Uzbek independence.]


·       Henze, Paul B. 1977. Politics and alphabets in Inner Asia. In Fishman, J. A. (editor), Advances in the creation and revision of writing systems (Contributions to the Sociology of Language, 8).  The Hague: Mouton, 371-420.


·       Wheeler, Geoffrey. 1977a. Islam and the Soviet Union. Middle Eastern Studies 13:1 (Jan.), 40-49.


·       ______. 1977b. The Turkic languages of Soviet Muslim Asia: Russian linguistic policy.  Middle Eastern Studies 13:2 (May), 208-217.


5. Suggestion from Joseph Lo Bianco


·       Lo Bianco, Joseph. 2002. Voices from Phnom Penh: Development and Language Local Influences and Global Effects. Melbourne, VIC: Language Australia. [Contains chapters on Central Asia, according to the author.]


6. Tariq Rahman’s Relevant Publications (selected) from his short CV:




·       1996. Language and Politics in Pakistan Karachi, PK: Oxford University Press,Paperback reprint, 1998 and 2000.


·       1999. Language, Education and Culture Karachi, PK: Oxford University Press. Paperback reprint, 2000.


·       2002. Language, Ideology and Power: Language-Learning Among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India Karachi, PK: Oxford University Press.




·       The Siraiki Language Movement in Pakistan. Language Planning and Language Problems 19:1 (February 1995) [New York & Berlin].


·       The Pashto Language Movement in Pakistan. Contemporary South Asia [UK] 4:2 (July 1995), 151-170.


·       Language and Politics in a Pakistan Province: The Sindhi Language Movement. Asian Survey [University of California, Berkeley] 35:11 (November 1995), 1005-1016.


·       British Language Policies and Imperialism in India. Language Problems and Language Planning 20:2 (Summer 1996), 91-115.


·       The Balochi/Brahvi Language Movements in Pakistan. Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies 19:3 (Spring 1996), 71-88.


·       The Punjabi Language Movement in Pakistan. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 122 (1996).


·       The Urdu-English Controversy in Pakistan. Modern Asian Studies [Cambridge] 31:1 (1977), 177-207.


·       The Medium of Instruction Controversy in Pakistan [Canada and UK] Journal of

      Multilingual and Multicultural Development 18:2, 1997, 145-154.


·       Language and Ethnicity in Pakistan. Asian Survey Vol. XXXVII, No. 9 (September 1997), 833-839.


·       Linguistics in Pakistan: A Country Report. In The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics (editor) Rajindra Singh (Delhi: Sage Publications, 1998), 184-196. 1-33.


·       The Politics of Urdu in India. Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies XXII: 2 (Winter 1999), 38-60.


·       The Decline of Persian in British India. South Asia [Australia] Vol. XXII, No. 1 (1999) 63-77.


·       The Teaching of Urdu in British India. The Annual of Urdu Studies, Number 15 part 1,  (2000), 31-56.


·       The Language of Employment: The Case of Pakistan. Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies Vol. XXIII, No. 4 (Summer 2000), 62-87.


·       The Learning of Balochi and Brahvi in Pakistan. Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies Vol. 24: No. 4 (Summer 2001), 45-59.


·       The Project of Respectability: Changes in Language Textbooks in British India. South Asia [Australia] Vol. 24, No. 2 (2001), 29-51 December 2001.


·       Language Learning and Power: A Theoretical Approach. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 152 (2001), 1-22.


·       The Learning of Pashto in North India and Pakistan: An Historical Account. Journal of Asian History 35/2 (2001), 158-187.


·       English-Teaching Institutions in Pakistan. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 22:3 (2001), 242-261.


·       The Learning of Punjabi by Punjabi Muslims: A Historical Account. International Journal  of Punjab Studies Vol. 8: No. 2 (July December 2001), 187-224.


·       The Politics of the Teaching of Urdu in Pakistan. Annual of Urdu Studies Vol. 17 (2002).



7. Birgit N. Schlyter’s Bibliography for “Language Policies in Present-Day Central

Asia”. MOST Journal on Multicultural Societies, Vol. 3, No. 2 UNESCO 2001.


·       Appel, Ren and Pieter Muysken. 1987. Language Contact and Bilingualism, London.


·       Campi, Alicia J. 1991. The Rise of Nationalism in the Mongolian Peoples Republic as Reflected in Language Reform, Religion, and the Cult of Chingghis Khan, in Bulletin: The IAMS News Information on Mongol Studies, International Association for Mongol Studies, No. 2(8), pp. 3-15.


·       Carlson, Charles F. 1994. Language Reform Movements in Central Asia, in Ingeborg Baldauf and Michael Friederich (eds.), Bamberger Zentralasien Studien: Konferenzakten ESCAS IV, Bamberg 8.-12. Oktober1991, Berlin, pp. 133-151.


·       Coulmas, Florian. 1985. Sprache und Staat: Studien zur Sprachplanung und Sprachpolitik, Berlin and New York ???.


·       Dave, Bhavna. 1996a. Politics of Language Revival: National Identity and State Building in Kazakhstan. Ph.D. dissertation, Syracuse University.


·       Dave, Bhavna. 1996b. Kazaks Struggle to Revive Their Language of Folklore, in Transition, 29 November 1996, pp. 23-25.


·       Devlet, Nadir (editor). 1992. Milletlerarası Çağdaş Türk Alfabeleri Sempozyumu, Istanbul: Marmara Üniversitesi Yayınları No:509, Türkiyat Araştırmaları Yayınları No:1.


·       Eschment, Beate. 1998. Hat Kasazchstan ein Russisches Problem?: Revision eines Katastrophenbildes, Bundesinstitut für ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien. Sonderveröffentlichung, February 1998.


·       Kirkwood, Michael (editor). 1989. Language Planning in the Soviet Union, London.


·       Lewis, E. Glyn. 1972. Multilingualism in the Soviet Union: Aspects of Language Policy and its Implementation, The Hague/Paris.


·       Pannier, Bruce. 1996. A Linguistic Dilemma in Kyrgyzstan, in Transition, 29 November 1996, pp. 28-29.


·       Schiffman, Harold F. 1996. Linguistic Culture and Language Policy, London and New York.


·       Schlyter, Birgit N. 1997. Language Policy in Independent Uzbekistan, Stockholm FoCAS Working Paper 1, Forum for Central Asian Studies (Per-Arne Berglie and Birgit N. Schlyter editors), Stockholm.


·       Schlyter, Birgit N. 1998. New Language Laws in Uzbekistan. Language Problems and Language Planning 22:2 (1998), pp. 143-181.


·       Schlyter, Birgit N. 2001. L’évolution sociolinguistique dans les sociétés en mutation de l’Asie centrale, in Jacques Maurais and Michael Morris (eds), Géostratégies des langues, Québec, Terminogramme 99-100 (2001).


·       Schlyter, Birgit N. In print. “Korean Business and Culture in Former Soviet Central Asia”, to appear in Proceedings from the ESCAS VII Conference, Vienna, 25-30 September 2000.


·       Simsir, Bilâl N. 1995. “Türkmenistan’da Lâtin Alfabesine Geçiş Hazirliklari”, in Türk Dili, No. 518, pp. 115-138.


8. Additional Works on Central Asian Language Policy (1989 -)

Compiled by Birgit N. Schlyter































9. Suggestion from Minglang Zhou at Dickenson and Carleton Colleges, who is interested in policy in Xinjiang, China, which neighbors Afghanistan


·       Zhou, Minglang. 2003. Multilingualism in China: The politics of writing reforms for minority languages. (Contributions to the Sociology of Language). Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.